NBR Analysis with Google Earth Engine (GEE)

INTRODUCTION

The forests are that ecosystem comprising of various plant animal and microorganism. The direct or indirect destruction and destruction of these areas not only affects the ecosystem of animals and plants, but also affects many areas such as climate change, tourism, industry, and health in the long term. In addition, the destruction of forests increases the probability of facing major problems such as landslides and floods, drought and air pollution. Turkey is a country established on an area of ​​77,945,200 hectares and approximately 27% (20,763,248 hectares) of our country consists of forest areas. The majority of forests are collected in the Black Sea, Marmara, Aegean and Mediterranean regions. Eastern Black Sea forests consist of moist species. Beech, spruce, oak, chestnut, hornbeam, Linden, Maple, Ash are the most common species in coastal forests. (Efe & Sönmez, 2015) Although Oak, Beech, Hornbeam, Chestnut, Maple, Poplar and Linden species are seen in the Marmara region, the most common species in the region are Oak, Beech and Fir trees. Red pine tree is frequently encountered in the Mediterranean and Aegean regions. In addition, Cedar and fir trees are found in the Mediterranean region. In our country, where forest fires are often observed, especially the Mediterranean and Aegean regions are very affected by fires due to the influence of climate. Burning forests every year cause great economic and ecological destruction in the region. (Karabulut ve ark., 2016)  
It is known that the climate of the Mediterranean region, which is dry and hot in summers, is a major factor in fires. Especially in July-August, when the temperature reaches the highest value, the branches rub against each other due to the effect of the wind in this region, increasing the probability of fire due to natural reasons. In addition, these fires can also occur due to human causes (leaving glass bottles, plastic in forest areas, throwing highly flammable materials such as butts, matches, lighters into the forest, etc.) can come out. The General Directorate of Forestry classifies the types of fire as Cover Fire (Fire that burns the dead and living cover that covers the forest soil) and Hill Fire (The fire that proceeds by burning the tops of trees and shrubs). (Forest Management 258 notification) 
After fires, it is important to identify these areas and create early action plans, but it is not always possible to determine the burning area and the intensity of the burning by conducting field work. For area detection studies, satellite images available to everyone can be downloaded and analyzed in programs such as ArcGIS and QGIS. Downloading these images and analyzing them through the specified programs is not very useful in terms of resource and cost management. Google Earth Engine is an interface for evaluating web-based remotely detected images. In particular, these web-based systems, which prevent unnecessary data storage and ensure that the data processing speed is independent from the computer, provide fast analysis and decision making. (Dereli 2018)